Cosmos Travels the Universe (Science for Kids Book 3)

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Astronomers detected an orbital resonance between the two innermost satellites of the mysterious ice giant planet. By Robin George Andrews. Various companies are pressing ahead with plans for internet service from space, which has prompted astronomers to voice concerns about the impact on research from telescopes on Earth. By Shannon Hall. Two women on Earth, Jessica Bennett and Mary Robinette Kowal, had a chat about two women astronauts in medium-sized spacesuits. By Richard Goldstein. The solar system is littered with the remains of crushed spacecraft.

By Jonathan Corum.

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NASA is examining a claim that an astronaut improperly accessed the bank account of her estranged spouse from the Space Station. By Mike Baker. The project included more than researchers around the world, about 40 of them women, including Dr. By Sarah Mervosh. Never miss an eclipse, a meteor shower, a rocket launch or any other astronomical and space event that's out of this world. By Michael Roston. President Trump is only the latest to propose returning to the moon and then heading to Mars.

But he faces the burdens of history to accomplish what his predecessors could not. By Peter Baker. By John Schwartz. By Nadia Drake. Theoretically, the universe may be riddled with tunnels through space and time. Two scientists have now proposed a way to detect the existence of a cosmic escape hatch. Polyhedrons are three-dimensional objects with sides that are all the same shape, like a cube, or a pyramid made of equilateral triangles.

All of these shapes can be placed inside of a sphere so that the edges just touch the surface. Kepler also suggested that the planets might produce musical notes because they can be described with a frequency. Tycho later assigned Kepler the task of analysing his observations of Mars. Galileo created one of the first microscopes and was one of the first people to use the telescope as an astronomical instrument.

Galileo showed that not everything in space is perfect and unchanging, and that not everything orbits the Earth or the Sun. Galileo was concerned that if others knew how to build a telescope like his, then they would beat him to all the potential new discoveries. He did distribute several telescopes, but these were sent to princes and cardinals, not astronomers or mathematicians.

Santini sent a telescope to Kepler so he could verify them too. Christiaan Huygens showed that Saturn also has moons in when he discovered Titan.

Huygens was also the first person to show that the bulges around Saturn are actually rings. Galileo explained why we do not feel the movement of the Earth in with his theory of relativity. If the Earth rotates, then its velocity v is equal to the distance it covers d divided by the time it takes t.

Velocity is a vector quality. This means that it contains two pieces of information: a value and a direction. The value, in this case, is the value of the speed.

In this case, it is equal to the distance between the Earth and the Sun. This shows that in a closed room there's no way of knowing whether you are moving at a constant velocity or whether you are stationary. When you are on a ship, for example, you are at rest with respect to the floor even though you are moving with respect to the sea. Shut yourself up with some friend in the main cabin below decks on some large ship, and have with there flies, butterflies, and other small flying animals. Have a large bowl of water with some fish in it; hang up a bottle that empties drop by drop into a wide vessel beneath it.

With the ship standing still, observe carefully how the little animals fly with equal speed to all sides of the cabin. The fish swim indifferently in all directions; the drops fall into the vessel beneath; and, in throwing something to your friend, you need throw it no more strongly in one direction than another, the distances being equal; jumping with your feet together, you pass equal spaces in every direction.

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When you have observed these things carefully though there is no doubt that when the ship is standing still everything must happen in this way , have the ship proceed with any speed you like, so long as the motion is uniform and not fluctuating this way and that. You will discover not the least change in all the effects named, nor could you tell from any of them whether the ship was moving or standing still.

A person on a ship may consider themselves to be stationary, with the shore moving away from them, and a person on the shore may consider themselves to be stationary while the ship moves away. No experiment can determine which perspective is correct, and so both views are equally valid.

Something can only have a velocity relative to something else, and if there were only one object in the universe, there would be no way to know whether it was moving at a constant velocity or whether it was stationary. Galileo also showed that relative speeds and velocities are additive. You can feel the effect of acceleration a , and this means that acceleration is not relative; there are always experiments that can determine if an object is changing velocity and hence accelerating. People that are moving at a constant velocity which can be zero are said to be in an inertial frame of reference, and people that are accelerating are said to be in a non-inertial reference frame.

When objects move in a circle, they change direction, and so can change velocity without changing their speed.

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This acceleration is known as centripetal acceleration a c , and it is always directed towards the centre of the circle. If something is moving in a circle, then the direction can be measured in degrees. Here, r is the radius of the circle and v is the velocity of the object in a perpendicular direction to the acceleration as shown in Figure 3.

This is the same as the velocity calculated by dividing the circumference of the circle by the time. Centripetal acceleration is always perpendicular to the direction of motion. In contrast to this, the acceleration we feel due to gravity discussed in Chapter 2 is. The effect that we experience due to centripetal acceleration is minimal compared to the effect we feel from gravity. In , the English astronomer James Bradley attempted to prove that the Earth moves using a phenomenon known as stellar parallax.

Stellar parallax occurs because the stars appear to move as we view them from slightly different positions throughout the year. Those that are closer appear to move more than those that are very far away. Stellar parallax occurs because we view stars from different locations throughout the year.

Bradley knew that if he could measure the angle that the stars appeared to move, then he could determine how far away they are using trigonometry. Stellar aberration is caused by the constantly changing angle with which we view the stars as the Earth orbits the Sun. The size of the known universe doubled in when the British astronomer William Herschel discovered the planet Uranus.

Bessel determined that the star 61 Cygni is about The German astronomer Johann Galle became the first person to observe the planet Neptune in , following calculations made by French mathematician Urbain Le Verrier. The shape of the universe was refined once again in the 20th century, with the discovery of galaxies beyond the Milky Way discussed in Chapter 10 and the expansion of the universe discussed in Chapter 9.

Royal Astron. Copyright Privacy Disclaimer Search Sitemap. I Pre 20th Century theories 1. Constellations 2. Latitude and Longitude 3. Models of the Universe 4. Force, Momentum, and Energy 5. The Origin of the Universe Galaxies Stars Red Giants and White Dwarfs Supergiants, Supernova, and Neutron Stars The planet Mercury The planet Venus The planet Earth The planet Mars