Life of Andrew Jackson
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Dickens shot Jackson first, not killing him. Jackson had his turn next and shot Dickens dead, creating a violent reputation and look for him. Trying to repair his reputation, Jackson led a group of almost 2,00 volunteers to protect New Orleans against attacks from the British and Native Americans.
The Life of Andrew Jackson
He was ordered to turn over his supplies and lead his troops back to Tennessee. He led his troops back to Tennessee and payed for their provisions, earning him respect. His military career began to accelerate as he was order to defeat a group of Muscogee, a hostile indian tribe. He fought in a number of battles, ending in the defeat of the hostile tribe and earned the title of brigadier general in the U. Under the treaty the Muscogee were ordered to surrender 23 million acres of their land to the United States government.
He then concerned himself to a potential threat of the British force attacking New Orleans. Jackson had around 5, men to defend New Orleans from attack. After the victory of the Battle of New Orleans, Jackson became a national hero, the peak of his military career. Weeks later, he learned that the British were planning an attack on New Orleans , which sat on the mouth of the Mississippi River and held immense strategic and commercial value.
Jackson abandoned Pensacola to the Spanish, placed a force in Mobile, Alabama to guard against a possible invasion there, and rushed the rest of his force west to defend the city. After arriving in New Orleans on December 1, ,  Jackson instituted martial law in the city, as he worried about the loyalty of the city's Creole and Spanish inhabitants.
At the same time, he formed an alliance with Jean Lafitte 's smugglers, and formed military units consisting of African-Americans and Muscogees,  in addition to recruiting volunteers in the city. Jackson received some criticism for paying white and non-white volunteers the same salary.
Army regulars and volunteers from surrounding states, joined with Jackson's force in defending New Orleans. The approaching British force, led by Admiral Alexander Cochrane and later General Edward Pakenham , consisted of over 10, soldiers, many of whom had served in the Napoleonic Wars. The British arrived on the east bank of the Mississippi River on the morning of December That evening, Jackson attacked the British and temporarily drove them back. An initial artillery barrage by the British did little damage to the well-constructed American defenses.
Once the morning fog had cleared, the British launched a frontal assault, and their troops made easy targets for the Americans protected by their parapets. Despite managing to temporarily drive back the American right flank, the overall attack ended in disaster. Of these, 13 men were killed, 39 wounded, and 19 missing or captured. The British admitted 2, casualties.
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Of these, men were killed including Pakenham , 1, wounded, and missing or captured. Coming in the waning days of the war, Jackson's victory made him a national hero, as the country celebrated the end of what many called the "Second American Revolution" against the British. Alexis de Tocqueville "underwhelmed" by Jackson according to a commentator later wrote in Democracy in America that Jackson "was raised to the Presidency, and has been maintained there, solely by the recollection of a victory which he gained, twenty years ago, under the walls of New Orleans.
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Had the British defeated Jackson at New Orleans, they might have held on to the territory or returned it to Spain. Spanish representatives claimed to have been assured that they would receive the land back. Thanks to Jackson's victory at New Orleans, the American government felt that it could safely ignore that provision and it kept the lands that Jackson had acquired.
Jackson, still not knowing for certain of the treaty's signing, refused to lift martial law in the city. In March , after U. District Court Judge Dominic A. Hall signed a writ of habeas corpus on behalf of a Louisiana legislator whom Jackson had detained, Jackson ordered Hall's arrest. He too was put in jail. Lewis was simultaneously serving under Jackson in the militia, and also had signed a writ of habeas corpus against Jackson, his commanding officer, seeking Judge Hall's release. Civilian authorities in New Orleans had reason to fear Jackson—he summarily ordered the execution of six members of the militia who had attempted to leave.
Their deaths were not well publicized until the Coffin Handbills were circulated during his presidential campaign. Following the war, Jackson remained in command of troops on the southern border of the U. He conducted business from the Hermitage. Several Native American tribes, which became known as the Seminole , straddled the border between the U. The Seminole, in alliance with escaped slaves, frequently raided Georgia settlements before retreating back into Florida. These skirmishes continually escalated, and the conflict is now known as the First Seminole War.
Jackson was also charged with preventing Florida from becoming a refuge for runaway slaves, after Spain promised freedom to fugitive slaves. Critics later alleged that Jackson exceeded orders in his Florida actions. His orders from President Monroe were to "terminate the conflict.
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Before departing, Jackson wrote to Monroe, "Let it be signified to me through any channel Jackson invaded Florida on March 15, , capturing Pensacola. He crushed Seminole and Spanish resistance in the region and captured two British agents, Robert Ambrister and Alexander Arbuthnot , who had been working with the Seminole. After a brief trial, Jackson executed both of them, causing a diplomatic incident with the British. Jackson's actions polarized Monroe's cabinet, some of whom argued that Jackson had gone against Monroe's orders and violated the Constitution, since the United States had not declared war upon Spain.
A congressional investigation exonerated Jackson, but he was deeply angered by the criticism he received, particularly from Speaker of the House Henry Clay. In the spring of , Jackson suffered a physical breakdown. His body had two bullets lodged in it, and he had grown exhausted from years of hard military campaigning. He regularly coughed up blood, and his entire body shook. Jackson feared that he was on the brink of death. After several months of rest, he recovered. He obsessed over rampant corruption in the Monroe administration and grew to detest the Second Bank of the United States , blaming it for causing the Panic of by contracting credit.
Jackson turned down an offer to run for governor of his home state, but accepted John Overton's plan to have the legislature nominate him for president. Crawford , who had been the most vocal critic of Jackson in Monroe's cabinet, and he hoped to prevent Tennessee's electoral votes from going to Crawford.
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Yet Jackson's nomination garnered a welcoming response even outside of Tennessee, as many Americans appreciated Jackson's attacks on banks. The Panic of had devastated the fortunes of many, and banks and politicians seen as supportive of banks were particularly unpopular. With his growing political viability, Jackson emerged as one of the five major presidential candidates, along with Crawford, Adams, Clay, and Secretary of War John C.
During the Era of Good Feelings , the Federalist Party had faded away, and all five presidential contenders were members of the Democratic-Republican Party. Jackson's campaign promoted him as a defender of the common people, as well as the one candidate who could rise above sectional divisions. On the major issues of the day, most prominently the tariff , Jackson expressed centrist beliefs, and opponents accused him of obfuscating his positions.
At the forefront of Jackson's campaign was combatting corruption. Jackson vowed to restore honesty in government and to scale back its excesses. In , Jackson reluctantly allowed his name to be placed in contention for one of Tennessee's U. Senate seats. The move was independently orchestrated by his advisors William Berkeley Lewis and U.
Senator John Eaton in order to defeat incumbent John Williams , who openly opposed his presidential candidacy. The legislature narrowly elected him.
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Eaton updated an already-written biography of him in preparation for the campaign and, along with others, wrote letters to newspapers praising Jackson's record and past conduct. Democratic-Republican presidential nominees had historically been chosen by informal Congressional nominating caucuses , but this method had become unpopular. In , most of the Democratic-Republicans in Congress boycotted the caucus.
Those who attended backed Crawford for president and Albert Gallatin for vice president. A Pennsylvania convention nominated Jackson for president a month later, stating that the irregular caucus ignored the "voice of the people" in the "vain hope that the American people might be thus deceived into a belief that he [Crawford] was the regular democratic candidate.