Pré-textes (Sciences Humaines) (French Edition)

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Lower refers to estimates varying from 4, to 10, That fewer than 10, immigrants could be the ancestors of the 70, or so who were present in implies fairly settled conditions and a rate of fertility among the highest ever reached, even among small populations occupying practically limitless areas. Since immigration from France was negligible subsequent to the Peace of Paris it is of special interest to calculate the annual rate of growth that is implied by the fact that in the eighty-six years preceding the population of Lower Canada multiplied by thirteen to , Population or money which multiplies by thirteen in eighty six years is growing at the rate of 2.

If the deaths were at least 25 per thousand the births would have to be at least 52 per thousand.


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The British had taken Nova Scotia in , and in Halifax, the first British settlement, was founded. It seemed to the leaders of the time that the best way out of their difficulties was to expel the Acadians, and this expulsion altered the demographic balance. After when the British took over the administration of the St.

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Lawrence Valley, the growth of the British population was slow, for the richer colonies to the south exerted a strong attraction. The French Canadians continued to farm, and each generation sought new lands for its sons. When the lands that were available within the boundaries constituted by the English holdings in the south and the infertility of the north were fully occupied there was a migration, most of it to the United States.

Montreal became a largely English city during the first half of the nineteenth century, and only about the time of Confederation did some of the overflow from Quebec farms enter it in the search for jobs, and restore the French majority. Confederation had important consequences for Canadian population through the integration of vast new territories. One of the tasks of the new federation was the development of the west. However, the growth of the prairies seemed to have to await the filling of the United States west, and it was only towards the end of the nineteenth century that population figures start to rise rapidly.

Manitoba was the first of the three prairie provinces to be occupied, and it counted 62, inhabitants in the census, , in , , in , and , in Partly to guide federal activities aimed at settling the country, a ten-year census had been made one of the articles of Confederation in When the prairies attained a growth early in the century of nearly a million persons per decade, it was plain that more frequent censuses would be necessary to keep track of it. Accordingly a special five-year census of the present prairie provinces was arranged, and this continued from to In the scope of the prairie census will be somewhat reduced, and it will be extended to the whole of Canada.

The purpose is to take account of a new phase of population growth, not primarily agricultural but rather urban, suburban, and oriented to the development of resources.

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The number of French in was 1,, and by these had increased to 4,, It is convenient to arrange population data in the form of a table which shows how the changes from one census to the next have occurred see Table I. The four possible ways in which people can enter or leave a population are by birth, death, immigration, and emigration.

But when we seek to analyse changes from one census to the next in terms of these four items we find that the official vital statistics series for Canada only go back about thirty years. The assumption that mortality in Canada was similar to that in England and Wales a hundred years ago fortunately has rather little effect on the calculation as compared [] with mortality 10 per cent higher or lower.

The number of children under ten years recorded at the successive censuses gives adequate information on births once we assume infant mortality rates.

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This method serves among other things as a check on the assumed mortality rates, because too low an estimate of deaths would exaggerate the number of immigrants from Canada, but diminish the apparent immigration into the United States, and so reveal itself. The general conclusion from the checks used is that most of the figures in Table I are within , of the truth. Given this information emigration may be calculated as a residual. The purpose of the construction in Table I is to show the roles played by natural increase and migration in the building of Canada.

It appears that the difference between the numbers of immigrants and of emigrants during the hundred years is only about ,, whereas the difference between births and deaths is over 10 million. The , net does not mean that of the 7 million immigrants only [] 10 per cent stayed, but rather that if the doors of both immigration and emigration had been closed the total population at the present time would have been less by the descendants of , persons. This statement does not fully clarify the role of immigration in attaining our present population, for we have the "loan" of population if the immigration comes before the emigration, and we receive some "interest" if the people in question are more than reproducing themselves.

In so far as the immigrants have high birth rates and the emigrants lower ones, the process gives Canada an additional demographic gain- though, some writers insist, a cultural loss. The extent to which the immigrants are themselves the emigrants of the same period has been much discussed. Successive censuses provide data on this point when set alongside statistics on immigration. It turns out that from January , to May , the number of immigrants who were recorded as entering Canada was ,, but that only , people reported to the census enumerators that [] they had come to Canada in that period.

The latter figure is only 63 per cent of the former - our rate of retention to the end of a five-year period was not high. The next census that was preceded by a major amount of immigration was that of , and this time we find that the number of immigrants in the preceding five-year period was ,, and that the census counted , of these, or 70 per cent. It looks as though Canada's ability to hold immigrants was much higher then than in former times, perhaps partly owing to some closing of the United States immigration doors, but mostly to our solid growth and the opportunities it offers for satisfying and remunerative work.

Birth and death rates for the period of Canadian history covered by Table 1, and indeed for a longer period, are discussed in the chapter of this volume written by Mr. The periods of immigration for example tend to show a decline in the percentage of French, whereas the negligible immigration of the 's brought the French to a higher proportion than had been seen during the present century. One may summarize by saying that after some decline, the proportion of French by was not appreciably different from that shown by the first census after Confederation.

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Birth and death rates are shown in Table , and from them it seems a reasonable guess to take the French births as 39 per cent of all births, and French deaths as 32 per cent of all deaths for the period prior to the time for which complete statistics are to be had. For our rough purpose we can take it that there was no French immigration, and we will infer the amount of French emigration. The result of all this for the French is 7. For the non-French the corresponding figures are The most important of these figures is the 1.

Esdras Minville speaks of a million departures in the century that ended in The absolute number of French who were born in Canada reaches a peak of , in , and is , in The proportion of French Canadians in the population of Canadian birth residing in the United States is declining, being almost one-third in , and less than one-quarter in The literature abounds in figures, however. Marquis, Statistician for the province of Quebec, gives their number as one million. The wide range of figures quoted on a simple fact is an example of the difficulty of providing a clear picture of an aspect of our social world for which the necessary statistics are not present.

Census figures throw light on the division of labour - how the French and English associate with one another in earning their individual livelihoods and in turning out the product of their joint industry. It has been studied by Jamieson, Roy, and above all by Hughes.

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For some posts, as Professor Hughes points out, an appointee's background must be such that he can be safely and comfortably entertained at dinner. For other posts this is not a requirement at all. Where the confidence of management is primary to the job, the appointee is likely to resemble management, both ethnically and in other ways, but when the confidence of staff is primary to the job, he will resemble staff. The suitability of a person is not established once and for all, but in a series of separate gestures, in the form for example of promotions, each of which constitutes, in Hughes's words, a "vote of confidence.

In the sorts of occupations in which the French and English work, [] no great change was revealed between the and censuses. Lortie goes on to discuss the resentment which French Canadians feel because so few of their group are in high-salaried positions.


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The problem is of course only partly that the educational system does not provide the background needed in modem industry, but partly also that "the control of capital is largely in English-language hands. The French were under-represented in high-salaried positions in proportion to their numbers in as in , especially where the activities of modern industry were involved. It is plainly not education that was lacking, but certain kinds of technical education. We said then that though there did not seem to be a change between and the figures were not entirely unambiguous, and besides the 's were a time of regression for everybody.

The [] war had brought many changes to Canada - a change in the division of labour between French and English might be one of the most fortunate.

Occupations of course do not tell the whole story, for an occupation as recognized by the census is something of a mixed bag. For example, you could enrol in a biology course from this list if you are studying in the Faculty of Arts. If it is, you can include this course in your timetable scenarios and enrol in it once the official enrolment period has begun. The electives without prerequisites are sorted by faculty, then by discipline.

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Select a faculty that interests you to see all the disciplines and courses offered. If you have no prior knowledge of the language you wish to study, just enrol in the Elementary I level course. To avoid delays when you register, complete the online placement test as early as possible, before the enrolment period begins. English or French as a second language courses: Students from all faculties who wish to improve their language proficiency in English or French can enrol in English as a second language ESL and French as a second language FLS courses, which range from beginner to high-advanced levels.

To see the course description, please consult the Programs and courses website. Specifications for User Generated Spatial Content. Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography , This paper addresses the issue of quality in the context of collaborative edition of spatial cont The overall approach is grounded on the definition of explicit and adequate specifications for such content, ie the data model, the conceptual model, conventions for data acquisition, possible integrity constraints, possible relationships with external reference data.

Explicit specifications could be processed to automatically check when different users simultaneously contribute on the same area. Their definition requires expertness, firstly, to Save to Library Edit.

Save to Library Download Edit. In our work, we are interested in facilitating the exploration by scholars of the geography of te Semantic annotation constitutes the first step to enrich such text with the necessary information for producing analytical maps. The present article focuses on the disambiguation of spatial named entities SNE by the attribution of an identifier of the ever-growing Web of Data. This giant knowledge base KB provides qualitative spatial information about geographic entities, in particular spatial relations such as :Paris :southOf :Lille , :Paris :country :France.

We performed preliminary experiments and noted the clear gain in performance. We propose some examples of maps that are built semi-automatically. Finally, we draw conclusions and describe our plans of future work. En effet, Despres et al. Evaluation of NER systems for the recognition of place mentions in French thematic corpora.